Freitag, 24. Januar 2014

Doktorarbeit 15: Taijiquan And The Search For The Little Old Chinese Man: Ritualizing Race Through Martial Arts

Adam Dean Frank

The University of Texas at Austin, 2003

This dissertation is an ethnographic study of the martial art of taijiquan as it is practiced in Shanghai, China, and the United States. Drawing on a growing literature on ethnicity, critical race theory, the phenomenology of race, and globalization, the author discusses racial formation as a process of ritualization, which he defines as the exercise of power through the formal transmission or receipt of knowledge.

Chapter 1 focuses on race and community formation in the monthly meetings of the Jianquan Taijiquan Association (JTA) in Shanghai. The chapter is also concerned with folklore and origin stories about taijiquan; with the history of Daoist studies in and outside of China; and with the social and individual embodiment of the key concepts of "qi" (vital energy) and "yi" (mind-intent).

Chapter 2 chronicles the authorís study of taijiquan with JTA teachers, touching on both the process and poetics associated with mastering the art.

Chapter 3 explores the social milieu of practice in Shanghai city parks and the processes through which race, ethnicity, and gender are embodied during public park practice. Drawing on recent literature in urban studies,

Chapter 4 focuses on taijiquan in the context of Shanghaiís history and development, positing it as a form of public art that reflects Shanghai peopleís simultaneous negotiation of past, present, and future.

In Chapter 5, the author approaches taijiquan as a master symbol of the Chinese nation. He combines historical analysis of the JTA with a discussion of tournaments and popular martial arts tourist destinations such as the Buddhist Shaolin Temple and Chen Family Village. He also discusses the Chinese Communist Partyís attempt to include taijiquan as an Olympic event.

Chapter 6 focuses on the world of poetry, kung fu movies, novels, and oral tradition that influence martial arts practice in China.

Chapter 7 draws on recent debates about transnational processes to trace the entrance of taijiquan into the United States and the transformation and hybridization of the art in the American context.

The dissertation concludes with a discussion of how processes of individual experience, urban life, nationalism, and globalization inhabit the body, contribute to the sensual experience of race, and, ultimately, raise fundamental questions about the relationship between "doing" and "being."

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Mittwoch, 15. Januar 2014

Artikel 11: Tai Chi and vestibular rehabilitation effects on gaze and whole-body stability

Chris A. McGibbon, David E. Krebs, Steven L. Wolf, Peter M. Wayne,
Donna Moxley Scarborough and Stephen W. Parker

Journal of Vestibular Research 14 (2004) 467–478 467 IOS Press

Tai Chi (TC) is a comparatively new intervention for peripheral vestibular hypofunction, which is often treated with vestibular rehabilitation (VR). We compared gaze stability (GZS), whole-body stability (WBS) and footfall stability (FFS) during locomotion among 26 people with vestibulopathy (VSP), randomized into two treatment arms (13 TC and 13 VR). Each intervention program was offered for 10 weeks. GZS improved more for VR than for TC, but WBS (and FFS) improved more for TC than for VR. There was a significant relationship between changes in GZS and WBS for the VR subjects (r = 0.60, p = 0.01), but not for TC subjects. There was a significant relationship between changes in WBS and FFS for both VR (r = 0.65, p < 0.01) and TC (r = 0.58, p = 0.02) groups; the relationship disappeared in the VR but not the TC group when controlling for GZS. These findings suggest that VR and TC both benefit patients with VSP but via differing mechanisms. Moreover, these data are the first to test the assumption that improving gaze control among patients with VSP perforce improves postural stability: it does not. We conclude that GZS is most improved in those who receive VR, but that TC improves WBS and FFS without improving GZS, suggesting patients with VSP can rely on non-gaze related mechanisms to improve postural control. More: here

Freitag, 10. Januar 2014

Masterarbeit 5: The Combined Effect of Tai Chi and Weight Loss on Physical Function in Community Dwelling obese Older Wommen

Jonathan M. Letendre


Introduction: Older obese women are at risk of obesity-related disability, but Tai Chi has not been explored as an exercise modality along with weight loss for their effects on physical function.

Methods: A 16-week community-based intervention was conducted to assess the impact of Tai Chi plus behaviorally-based weight loss (TCWL, n=29) on obese (BMI=35.4 ±0.8 kg/m2) older (68.2±1.5 yr) women compared to a control group (CON, n=9, BMI=38.0±1.5kg/m2, 65.6±2.7 yr). The major outcome was the short physical performance battery (SPPB), consisting of 4-m gait speed (GS), standing balance, and chair stand (CS) tests. The TCWL group participated in two Tai Chi sessions and one dietary weight loss session per week with a goal of 5-10% weight loss. The CON group was asked to maintain their normal lifestyle.

Results: The TCWL group lost weight, (1.6±2.9 kg, P=.006) while the CON group showed no significant change (1.2 ± 1.9 kg P=.11). SPPB score improved in TCWL (0.59±1.28, P=.023) when compared to the CON group (-0.56±1.81, P=.38). TCWL group improved GS (-0.14±0.76 sec, P=.34) time better (P=.004) than CON (0.56±0.81 sec, P=.07) and also improved CS (-0.80±1.71 sec, P=.02) time better (P=.065) than CON (0.28±2.83 sec, P=.77). Participants in the TCWL group who lost ≥ 3.0% (n=9) body weight saw improvements in SPPB (P<0.01) and flexibility (P<0.05). Weight losers in the TCWL group saw improvements compared to the CON group in SPPB (P<0.001). Discussion: Tai Chi combined with dietary weight loss may represent an effective intervention strategy to maintain and improve physical function in older obese women. Mehr: hier

Montag, 6. Januar 2014

Artikel 10: Effect of Tai Chi versus Walking on Oxidative Stress in Mexican Older Adults

Juana Rosado-Pérez, Rocío Ortiz, Edelmiro Santiago-Osori, and Víctor Manuel Mendoza-Núñez

Unidad de Investigación en Gerontología, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México, DF, Mexico, 2013

It has recently been reported that the practice of Tai Chi reduces oxidative stress (OxS), but it is not clear whether walking or Tai Chi produces a greater antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the practice of Tai Chi and walking on markers for OxS. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with 106 older adults between 60 and 74 years of age who were clinically healthy and divided into the following groups: (i) control group (), (ii) walking group (), and (iii) Tai Chi group (). We measured the levels of lipoperoxides (LPO), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidant status (TAS) pre- and post-intervention in all subjects. The data were subjected to a covariant analysis. We found lower levels of LPO in the Tai Chi group compared with the walking group (Tai Chi, 0.261 ± 0.02; walking, 0.331 ± 0.02; control, 0.304 ± 0.023 µmol/L; ). Likewise, we observed significantly higher SOD activity and lower OxS-score in the Tai Chi group (). Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi produces a more effective antioxidant effect than walking.

Mehr: hier