Montag, 8. Dezember 2014

Artikel 17: Tai Chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis

Chenchen Wang, Raveendhara Bannuru1, Judith Ramel1, Bruce Kupelnick1, Tammy Scott and
Christopher H Schmid

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010

Background: Physical activity and exercise appear to improve psychological health. However, the quantitative effects of Tai Chi on psychological well-being have rarely been examined. We systematically reviewed the effects of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance in eastern and western populations.

Methods: Eight English and 3 Chinese databases were searched through March 2009. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled studies and observational studies reporting at least 1 psychological health outcome were examined. Data were extracted and verified by 2 reviewers. The randomized trials in each subcategory of health outcomes were meta analyzed using a random-effects model. The quality of each study was assessed.

Results: Forty studies totaling 3817 subjects were identified. Approximately 29 psychological measurements were assessed. Twenty-one of 33 randomized and nonrandomized trials reported that 1 hour to 1 year of regular Tai Chi significantly increased psychological well-being including reduction of stress (effect size [ES], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 1.09), anxiety (ES, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.03), and depression (ES, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.80), and enhanced mood (ES, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.69) in community-dwelling healthy participants and in patients with chronic conditions. Seven observational studies with relatively large sample sizes reinforced the beneficial association between Tai Chi practice and psychological health.

Conclusions: Tai Chi appears to be associated with improvements in psychological well-being including reduced stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance, and increased self-esteem. Definitive conclusions were limited due to variation in designs, comparisons, heterogeneous outcomes and inadequate controls. High-quality, well-controlled, longer randomized trials are needed to better inform clinical decisions.

Mehr: hier

Mittwoch, 5. November 2014

Artikel 16: The benefits of tai chi as a self management strategy to improve health in people with chronic conditions

Catherine M Fetherston

Murdoch University, Mandurah, WA, Australia, 2010

Aim. To provide health professionals with information regarding the phenomenon of tai chi, which has now become a world wide activity with the potential to improve health and well-being in a broad range of chronic illnesses.

Background. Mind-body approaches to health, such as tai chi, are gaining in popularity, particularly amongst people with chronic illness who are seeking self management health strategies that have the capacity to address multiple health needs across both physical and psychological spectrums.

Method. This article has been informed by a broad computerized systematic literature search.

Conclusions. An ever increasing body of research indicates that tai chi has beneficial effects in people with a range of medical conditions in varying populations. Its potential benefits include enhancing cardio-respiratory fitness, reducing blood pressure, improving glucose control in diabetic patients, increasing immune response, alleviating pain, assisting in the rehabilitation of people experiencing chronic health conditions, and promoting psychological well-being. Tai chi’s wide range of reported benefits makes it an ideal self management strategy, for both the elderly and people with chronic conditions, to improve their psychological and physical well-being in a community setting.
Relevance to clinical practice. Knowledge regarding indications for, and effects of, this popular self management intervention will enable health professionals to provide up to date information and advice to patients on the appropriateness of including tai chi in their self management health plans.

Mehr: hier

Mittwoch, 24. September 2014

Artikel 15: Kung-fu – zwischen Kampf und Kunst: Philosophische Grundlagen der chinesischen Kampfeskunst

K.-H. Pohl, Trier

Bei näherem Hinsehen hat es in China – nicht anders als sonstwo – quer durch die Geschichte fast ununterbrochen Krieg und Kampf gegeben. Der Widerspruch zwischen propagiertem Pazifismus und kriegerischer Realität erklärt sich wohl einfach dadurch, daß Ideal und Wirklichkeit meist auseinander klaffen: Ideale zu pflegen, heißt nicht, daß diese auch in der Wirklichkeit umgesetzt sein müssen. So wären auch die Ideale der christlichen Nächstenliebe und Friedfertigkeit angesichts 2000 Jahre Geschichte christlichen Abendlands leicht als realitätsfern zu entlarven, obwohl diese Ideale bis heute – in säkularer Form – Leitlinien europäischer Politik geblieben sind.

In China ist es also nicht anders als in Europa. Zwar pflegte man Harmonie als höchstes Ideal, doch findet man gleichzeitig eine reiche Literatur, die sich mit allen Aspekten des Kampfes/Krieges beschäftigt, insbesondere in Form der sogenannten "Schule der Kriegsstrategien" (bingjia).

Doch zeigt sich das Thema Kampf auch in anderen klassischen Schulen und Schriften, so bei den Moisten als Theoretikern des Verteidigungskrieges, bei den Legalisten, die Krieg und Kampf zur Stärkung des Reiches befürworteten, oder sogar – wenn auch nur am Rande – bei dem Konfuzianer Menzius, wenn er sagt: "Ein Edler wird nicht kämpfen wollen; doch wenn er kämpft, dann muß er siegen" (zhan bi sheng).

Mehr: hier

Donnerstag, 11. September 2014

Artikel 14: Mindfulness-based interventions in multiple sclerosis: beneficial effects of Tai Chi on balance, coordination, fatigue and depression

Janina M Burschka, Philipp M Keune, Ulrich Hofstadt-van Oy, Patrick Oschmann and Peter Kuhn

2014

Patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) experience a wide array of symptoms, including balance problems, mobility impairment, fatigue and depression. Physical exercise has recently been acknowledged as a treatment option complementary to medication. However, information regarding putative effects of structured exercise programs on neurological symptoms is sparse. Tai Chi, a Chinese martial art incorporating physical exercise and mindfulness training, has been shown to yield health benefits in various neurological groups. It seems particularly suitable for patients with motoric deficits as it challenges coordination and balance. The purpose of the current study was to explore the therapeutic value of structured Tai Chi training for coordination, balance, fatigue and depression in mildly disabled MS patients.

Mehr: hier

Mittwoch, 25. Juni 2014

Artikel 13: The Meaning of Taijiquan from the Chen Family in Physical Activity of Poles

Józef Bergier, Radosław Panasiuk, Michał Bergier

John Paul II State Higher Vocational School, Biała Podlaska, Poland, 2013

The wushu martial arts have a long history, and the effect of this long tradition is a number of new schools and styles. The main aim of the paper is to extend the knowledge on the meaning of taijiquan from the Chen family, for the people in Poland who prefer this kind of physical activity.

The study was conducted on 110 persons aged 20-90 (the average age amounted to 45.2 years), including 72 males and 38 females who practise taijiquan in various centres in Poland. The authors used their own straw poll, composed of 12 questions (6 open-ended questions and 6 closed-ended ones), and the specification.

The main motive of taking up taijiquan by Poles is health improvement and fitness, as well as the interest in Oriental martial arts. For most practitioners it is, first of all, “internal martial art”, a form of Far Eastern medi- tation, the philosophy of life in today’s urbanized civilization. It is a form of physical activity available in Poland regardless of the age and occupation, becoming an integral part of their lifestyle and the only preferred form of physical activity.

The findings lead to the conclusion that taijiquan is such an attractive martial art in terms of health benefits that its further popularization may become the only or one of the main “life sports” not only for Poles.

Mehr: here

Samstag, 10. Mai 2014

Buch 7: Chinese Martial Arts

From Antiquity to the twenty-first century

Peter A. Lorge




In the global world of the twenty-first century, martial arts are practised for self-defense and sporting purposes only. However, for thousands of years, they were a central feature of military practice in China and essential for the smooth functioning of society. This book, which opens with an intriguing account of the very first female martial artist, charts the history of combat and fighting techniques in China from the Bronze Age to the present.

This broad panorama affords fascinating glimpses into the transformation of martial skills, techniques and weaponry against the background of Chinese history, the rise and fall of empires, their governments and their armies. Quotations from literature and poetry, and the stories of individual warriors, infuse the narrative, offering personal reflections on prowess in the battlefield and techniques of engagement. This is an engaging and readable introduction to the authentic history of Chinese martial arts.

Peter A. Lorge is a Senior Lecturer of History at Vanderbilt University. He is the author of War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 900–1795 (2005) and The Asian Military Revolution: From Gunpowder to the Bomb (2008).

Sonntag, 9. März 2014

Artikel 12: Effects of Tai Chi exercises on work engagement and mental and physical health: A pilot study

Monique Meijerink

University of Twente,2010

The past decades interest in alternative medicine in the Netherlands has grown. Tai Chi, a type of alternative medicine, is a combination of rhythmic movement and self-defense practice with relaxation trough deep breathing and self-awareness so a person can connect his mind and body. Several investigators demonstrated a positive effect of Tai Chi on physical and mental health. This pilot study addresses the effect of Tai Chi on work engagement. Work engagement - a concept of positive psychology - is a positive, work- related psychological state which is characterized by vigor, dedication and absorption. Work engagement is positively correlated to mental and physical health. Participants followed a ten week Tai Chi program, meaning they followed one Tai Chi session a week under supervision of a professional Tai Chi practitioner. By using questionnaires, during ten weeks, participants reported on their level of work engagement and mental and physical health. The expectation was that Tai Chi has a positive effect on work engagement and mental and physical health. Results showed that a Tai Chi session has a positive, short term effect on physical tension, balance and mental relaxation, but not on energy. No convincing evidence on the effects of a ten week Tai Chi program was found.

Mehr: hier

Freitag, 24. Januar 2014

Doktorarbeit 15: Taijiquan And The Search For The Little Old Chinese Man: Ritualizing Race Through Martial Arts

Adam Dean Frank

The University of Texas at Austin, 2003

This dissertation is an ethnographic study of the martial art of taijiquan as it is practiced in Shanghai, China, and the United States. Drawing on a growing literature on ethnicity, critical race theory, the phenomenology of race, and globalization, the author discusses racial formation as a process of ritualization, which he defines as the exercise of power through the formal transmission or receipt of knowledge.

Chapter 1 focuses on race and community formation in the monthly meetings of the Jianquan Taijiquan Association (JTA) in Shanghai. The chapter is also concerned with folklore and origin stories about taijiquan; with the history of Daoist studies in and outside of China; and with the social and individual embodiment of the key concepts of "qi" (vital energy) and "yi" (mind-intent).

Chapter 2 chronicles the authorís study of taijiquan with JTA teachers, touching on both the process and poetics associated with mastering the art.

Chapter 3 explores the social milieu of practice in Shanghai city parks and the processes through which race, ethnicity, and gender are embodied during public park practice. Drawing on recent literature in urban studies,

Chapter 4 focuses on taijiquan in the context of Shanghaiís history and development, positing it as a form of public art that reflects Shanghai peopleís simultaneous negotiation of past, present, and future.

In Chapter 5, the author approaches taijiquan as a master symbol of the Chinese nation. He combines historical analysis of the JTA with a discussion of tournaments and popular martial arts tourist destinations such as the Buddhist Shaolin Temple and Chen Family Village. He also discusses the Chinese Communist Partyís attempt to include taijiquan as an Olympic event.

Chapter 6 focuses on the world of poetry, kung fu movies, novels, and oral tradition that influence martial arts practice in China.

Chapter 7 draws on recent debates about transnational processes to trace the entrance of taijiquan into the United States and the transformation and hybridization of the art in the American context.

The dissertation concludes with a discussion of how processes of individual experience, urban life, nationalism, and globalization inhabit the body, contribute to the sensual experience of race, and, ultimately, raise fundamental questions about the relationship between "doing" and "being."

Mehr: hier

Mittwoch, 15. Januar 2014

Artikel 11: Tai Chi and vestibular rehabilitation effects on gaze and whole-body stability

Chris A. McGibbon, David E. Krebs, Steven L. Wolf, Peter M. Wayne,
Donna Moxley Scarborough and Stephen W. Parker

Journal of Vestibular Research 14 (2004) 467–478 467 IOS Press

Tai Chi (TC) is a comparatively new intervention for peripheral vestibular hypofunction, which is often treated with vestibular rehabilitation (VR). We compared gaze stability (GZS), whole-body stability (WBS) and footfall stability (FFS) during locomotion among 26 people with vestibulopathy (VSP), randomized into two treatment arms (13 TC and 13 VR). Each intervention program was offered for 10 weeks. GZS improved more for VR than for TC, but WBS (and FFS) improved more for TC than for VR. There was a significant relationship between changes in GZS and WBS for the VR subjects (r = 0.60, p = 0.01), but not for TC subjects. There was a significant relationship between changes in WBS and FFS for both VR (r = 0.65, p < 0.01) and TC (r = 0.58, p = 0.02) groups; the relationship disappeared in the VR but not the TC group when controlling for GZS. These findings suggest that VR and TC both benefit patients with VSP but via differing mechanisms. Moreover, these data are the first to test the assumption that improving gaze control among patients with VSP perforce improves postural stability: it does not. We conclude that GZS is most improved in those who receive VR, but that TC improves WBS and FFS without improving GZS, suggesting patients with VSP can rely on non-gaze related mechanisms to improve postural control. More: here

Freitag, 10. Januar 2014

Masterarbeit 5: The Combined Effect of Tai Chi and Weight Loss on Physical Function in Community Dwelling obese Older Wommen

Jonathan M. Letendre

UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND, 2013

Introduction: Older obese women are at risk of obesity-related disability, but Tai Chi has not been explored as an exercise modality along with weight loss for their effects on physical function.

Methods: A 16-week community-based intervention was conducted to assess the impact of Tai Chi plus behaviorally-based weight loss (TCWL, n=29) on obese (BMI=35.4 ±0.8 kg/m2) older (68.2±1.5 yr) women compared to a control group (CON, n=9, BMI=38.0±1.5kg/m2, 65.6±2.7 yr). The major outcome was the short physical performance battery (SPPB), consisting of 4-m gait speed (GS), standing balance, and chair stand (CS) tests. The TCWL group participated in two Tai Chi sessions and one dietary weight loss session per week with a goal of 5-10% weight loss. The CON group was asked to maintain their normal lifestyle.

Results: The TCWL group lost weight, (1.6±2.9 kg, P=.006) while the CON group showed no significant change (1.2 ± 1.9 kg P=.11). SPPB score improved in TCWL (0.59±1.28, P=.023) when compared to the CON group (-0.56±1.81, P=.38). TCWL group improved GS (-0.14±0.76 sec, P=.34) time better (P=.004) than CON (0.56±0.81 sec, P=.07) and also improved CS (-0.80±1.71 sec, P=.02) time better (P=.065) than CON (0.28±2.83 sec, P=.77). Participants in the TCWL group who lost ≥ 3.0% (n=9) body weight saw improvements in SPPB (P<0.01) and flexibility (P<0.05). Weight losers in the TCWL group saw improvements compared to the CON group in SPPB (P<0.001). Discussion: Tai Chi combined with dietary weight loss may represent an effective intervention strategy to maintain and improve physical function in older obese women. Mehr: hier

Montag, 6. Januar 2014

Artikel 10: Effect of Tai Chi versus Walking on Oxidative Stress in Mexican Older Adults

Juana Rosado-Pérez, Rocío Ortiz, Edelmiro Santiago-Osori, and Víctor Manuel Mendoza-Núñez

Unidad de Investigación en Gerontología, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México, DF, Mexico, 2013


It has recently been reported that the practice of Tai Chi reduces oxidative stress (OxS), but it is not clear whether walking or Tai Chi produces a greater antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the practice of Tai Chi and walking on markers for OxS. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with 106 older adults between 60 and 74 years of age who were clinically healthy and divided into the following groups: (i) control group (), (ii) walking group (), and (iii) Tai Chi group (). We measured the levels of lipoperoxides (LPO), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total antioxidant status (TAS) pre- and post-intervention in all subjects. The data were subjected to a covariant analysis. We found lower levels of LPO in the Tai Chi group compared with the walking group (Tai Chi, 0.261 ± 0.02; walking, 0.331 ± 0.02; control, 0.304 ± 0.023 µmol/L; ). Likewise, we observed significantly higher SOD activity and lower OxS-score in the Tai Chi group (). Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi produces a more effective antioxidant effect than walking.

Mehr: hier